The recent wave of twists and turns of the Tianhai access incident has highlighted the harsh living environment and difficulties of Chinese professional football clubs. In the new season, one Chinese Super League, three Chinese League A and countless Chinese League B clubs are all facing dissolution and disappearance. The Chinese Football Association is broken for admission and replacement. The so-called league expansion plan has become a piece of joke. What makes it so difficult for Chinese professional football clubs to survive?
Today, professional football has developed into a big business and a large commercial show, and the operation of professional football clubs is becoming more and more like an enterprise. But unlike companies that are purely profit-oriented (except for some so-called Internet companies that serve the people), the operation of football clubs is more like an economy of influence. The goal of the team is to compete for championships and achievements. In order to achieve results, it is necessary to invest in players and coaches. With achievements, on the one hand, you can get more game bonuses and broadcast rights, and on the other hand, you can expand your fan base and Market influence, increase competition day income and commercial income. Match day income (sales of tickets and reception services), broadcast income (domestic leagues, cups, and intercontinental events) and commercial income (sponsors, peripheral products, stadium tours and other business activities) have become professional football clubs The three recognized sources of income and profit, and labor costs have become the club’s largest expenditure item. Next, let's compare the operating conditions of domestic and foreign clubs to analyze the difficulties of Chinese clubs in detail.
China’s professional football clubs voluntarily announce their own business conditions. The current domestic hegemon, Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao Club, regularly announces its financial reports due to its listing on the New Third Board. The following is its 2018 annual report data:
1. Operating income is approximately RMB 603 million, operating cost is approximately RMB 2.43 billion, and operating profit is approximately RMB 1.804 billion
2. Revenue: advertising revenue is about 463 million yuan, accounting for 76.77% of total revenue; game appearance fee and bonus revenue is about 77 million yuan, accounting for 12.8% of total revenue; ticket revenue is about 41 million yuan, accounting for total revenue 6.84% of the total income; other income was about 22 million (mainly sales of goods), accounting for 3.59% of the total revenue; of which, the income from the parent company Evergrande Group reached 358 million (the parent company’s advertising sponsored blood transfusion), accounting for the total revenue 59.27% of the total income; and the income from the Super League company is 73 million (the Super League bonus, broadcasting rights and sponsor dividends), accounting for 12.11% of the total revenue; and about 30 million yuan in government subsidy income
3. In terms of cost: employee salary expenditures reached about 1.47 billion, accounting for 60% of total costs; depreciation and amortization was about 670 million (player transfer fees are amortized according to the contract period), accounting for 27% of total costs (total labor costs accounted for 87% of the total cost); venue rental and security fees are about 200 million, accounting for 8% of the total cost; another travel cost is about 45 million, and the cost of goods is about 16 million
Summary: What did the Evergrande Dynasty and the champion trade for? One word: money! If you only consider the financial account, investing in football is an extremely uneconomical business. In order to win the championship, invest 2 billion in the human cost of players, and all the income in exchange is only 600 million, and more than half of the income is the group’s own left hand For the right hand, the net loss is close to 1.8 billion (this is only one year). The ticket income and the security fee for renting and security also lost 160 million yuan, and the gross profit of merchandise sales was only 6 million yuan, all of which were losing money.
The Shanghai SIPG Club, another Chinese Super League giant, as a subsidiary of the listed company SIPG, has its operating data also appearing in the group's annual report, but it is not as detailed as Evergrande Club. We can only see that its operating income in 2018 reached 2.33776 billion, operating profit was -27,005,600, and net profit was 1.8415 million. The operating profit was a loss, but the net profit turned into a profit because there was a 30 million yuan Shanghai Sports Bureau's Super League winning bonus. The annual operating cost of SIPG Club has also exceeded 2.35 billion, which is basically the same as Evergrande, but its operating income is nearly four times that of Evergrande. The president of SIPG was transferred to the chairman of the Football Association because of the club’s spiritual and material civilization. , But do you believe this data? SIPG’s annual revenue of 300 million euros can rank 16th among all European clubs. AC Milan’s annual revenue last year was only 200 million euros.
作为上市公司SIPG的子公司的另一家中国超级联赛巨头上海SIPG俱乐部，其运营数据也出现在该集团的年度报告中，但没有恒大俱乐部那么详细。我们只能看到其2018年的营业收入达到23377.67亿美元，营业利润为-270.056万，净利润为184.15万。营业利润是亏损，但净利润却变成了利润，因为上海市体育局获得了3000万元的中超冠军奖金。 SIPG俱乐部的年度运营成本也已超过23.5亿，与恒大基本相同，但其运营收入几乎是恒大的四倍。由于俱乐部的精神和物质文明，SIPG的主席被调任为足协主席。 ，但是您相信这些数据吗？ SIPG的年收入为3亿欧元，在所有欧洲俱乐部中排名第16位。 AC米兰去年的年收入仅为2亿欧元。
Let's take a look at the revenue of European giants. In the "2020 Deloitte Football Fortune List" released by Deloitte, Barcelona ranked first with a record revenue of 840 million euros, of which commercial revenue accounted for 46. %, broadcast rights accounted for 35%, and match day revenue accounted for 16%.
让我们看一下欧洲巨头的收入。在德勤发布的“ 2020德勤足球财富榜”中，巴塞罗那以8.4亿欧元的创纪录收入排名第一，其中商业收入占46.％，转播权占35％，比赛日收入占16％ 。
Real Madrid ranked second in total revenue of 757 million euros, of which business revenue accounted for 47%, broadcasting rights revenue accounted for 34%, and match day revenue accounted for 14%.
Manchester United ranked third in total revenue of 712 million euros, of which commercial revenue accounted for 45%, broadcast rights accounted for 38%, and match day revenue accounted for 17%. The ability of European giants to spend money is directly proportional to their ability to attract money.
Let's take a look at the 2019 annual report of the listed company Manchester United:
1. Operating income is approximately 630 million pounds, operating costs are approximately 580 million pounds, and operating profits are approximately 50 million pounds.
2. Business income is approximately 270 million pounds in operating income, accounting for approximately 43%, of which sponsorship income is approximately 170 million pounds, merchandise sales and franchise income is approximately 100 million pounds; broadcasting rights income is approximately 240 million pounds, and match day income is approximately 1.1 100 million pounds, accounting for about 17%. A total of 26 home games in the whole season brought an average match day income of 4.2 million pounds per match (Manchester United’s match day income equals Evergrande’s one year ticket income), total audience There were 1.9 million people, an average of 73,000 people per game, an average attendance rate of 99%, and about 320,000 people visited Old Trafford Stadium and Manchester United Museum every year.
3. In the operating cost, the direct labor cost is about 330 million pounds, accounting for about 57%, the labor amortization cost is about 130 million pounds, accounting for about 22% (total labor costs accounting for 80% of the total cost); other operating costs are about 1.1 Billion pounds, accounting for about 19%;
So what is the reason for such a big gap between the operating conditions of Chinese and foreign football clubs? Personal summary has the following points:
At present, the commercial development of professional sports in China is still very low. The club’s revenue mainly depends on advertising sponsorship income. The development of broadcasting rights, merchandise sales and game day income is difficult (think about how much money you will pay to watch the Super League matches each year. Team genuine merchandise and go to the scene to watch)
Chinese fans’ acceptance of paid broadcasting and genuine club merchandise is still relatively low, which directly affects the club’s broadcasting rights income, equipment sponsorship income and merchandise sales income (how LeEco Sports is so dirty, why does Nike do so); at the same time, because of China’s The clubs do not own their own courts, which makes it difficult to develop income on match days (the clubs do not even have the opportunity to open specialty stores and sell drinks on the courts)
Foreign football clubs originated from local football clubs and gradually developed into professional football clubs with a long history and a high degree of integration with the local community. Many fans are long-term members or even shareholders of the club. Fans have a certain degree of participation and decision-making power in club affairs (see La Liga’s membership club and Bundesliga’s 50+1 system), and their loyalty and sense of belonging to the club will be great. high. Regardless of the club's performance, relying on the fans' match day and merchandise sales revenue is guaranteed. However, professional clubs in China are transformed from professional teams directly acquired by companies. They have been established in a relatively short time and the communication with fans is obviously insufficient. Therefore, they do not have the corresponding community and fan base; fans are loyal to their teams. It depends more on local awareness and team performance, and cannot participate in team affairs decision-making. The sense of ownership of the team is relatively weak. Coupled with the lack of consumer awareness and football culture, in addition to tickets, fans The contribution of club income is extremely small.
外国足球俱乐部起源于当地的足球俱乐部，并逐渐发展成为历史悠久，与当地社区高度融合的职业足球俱乐部。许多球迷是俱乐部的长期成员甚至股东。球迷在俱乐部事务中具有一定程度的参与和决策权（请参阅西甲的会员俱乐部和德甲的50 + 1系统），他们的忠诚度和归属感将非常出色。高。无论俱乐部的表现如何，都可以依靠球迷的比赛日来保证商品销售收入。但是，中国的专业俱乐部是由公司直接收购的专业团队转变而来的。他们建立的时间相对较短，与粉丝的交流显然不够。因此，他们没有相应的社区和粉丝群；球迷忠于自己的球队。它更多地取决于当地的意识和团队绩效，不能参与团队事务的决策。团队的主人翁意识相对较弱。再加上缺乏消费意识和足球文化，除了门票外，球迷们俱乐部收入的贡献也很小。
In summary, professional football in China cannot feed a team on its own investment returns. It requires continuous blood transfusion from the parent company. This is obviously not a commercial or sports activity, but more like a corporate advertising activity and commercial speculation. Therefore, China's professional football clubs are obviously affected by government policies and the business direction of the parent company. Once the external environment changes slightly, it is easy to die. In the early days of the Chinese professional leagues, there are also examples of Mengmu's three moves and the continuous transfer of teams. . In recent years, with the popularity of professional leagues, the investment standard of professional football has risen, and there are more and more big-name foreign aids and foreign teachers. The lack of talents has caused the imbalance of supply and demand for local players to increase their salaries, but the high investment still cannot exchange high returns. , The continued high losses will inevitably turn out more and more small and medium players. On the one hand, the prohibition of transfers in other places and the strict entry threshold of the Football Association regulates the management of the club. On the other hand, it also makes many companies afraid of investing in football. The long-term conflicts have finally led to the explosion and disappearance of countless clubs this winter. Chinese professional football clubs are as difficult as Chinese football.
总之，中国的职业足球无法依靠自己的投资回报养活一支球队。它需要母公司不断输血。这显然不是商业或体育活动，而更像是公司的广告活动和商业投机活动。因此，中国的职业足球俱乐部显然受到政府政策和母公司业务方向的影响。一旦外部环境稍有变化，就很容易死亡。在中国职业联赛的初期，也有孟木的三招和球队不断转移的例子。 。近年来，随着职业联赛的普及，职业足球的投资水平不断提高，越来越多的大牌外援和外教。人才的缺乏导致了当地企业供求的不平衡，从而增加了他们的薪水，但是高额的投资仍然无法交换高额的回报。 ，持续的高额亏损将不可避免地导致越来越多的中小玩家。一方面，禁止在其他地方进行转让以及足球协会的严格准入门槛规范了俱乐部的管理。另一方面，这也使许多公司害怕投资足球。长期的冲突最终导致了今年冬天无数俱乐部的爆炸和消失。中国职业足球俱乐部和中国足球一样困难。